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Wednesday, July 29, 2020

Water tanks Sahay Yojana Online and Offline Apply 2020 ( ikhedut portal Online application)

The government is striving to enable the farmers of the state to get higher production of agricultural crops and become economically prosperous.
Government Schemes WhatsApp group
However, unseasonal rains, hurricanes, heavy rains and other factors adversely affect the quality of the crop after its production, due to which the farmer cannot get adequate compensation for his labor. To help build community base underground tanks for water from Ketu to increase, increase quality production and increase social harmony among farmers, the farmer can reap the rewards of his hard work and avoid adverse effects on crop productivity and product quality.

For the new matter of giving Rs. Proposal made by letter No. (1) read by the Director of Agriculture for administrative sanction of Rs.

Under consideration, Karav: Budget provision under the new matter in the year 2020-21 for a scheme to assist adult consideration in constructing community base ground water tanks for economical use of water through arrow, drip irrigation is Rs. ૬ on, on lakh (six lakh lakh in number) kills in giving administrative approval to spend. (1) Matter of assistance (1) Application has to be made to the group under this scheme, 50% of the expenditure or Rs. 3.50 lakh whichever is less, has to be paid in the account of the group linker as decided by the group, (2) for assistance under this scheme.

The unit course should include materials including an RC with a capacity of at least 1000 dinimeters, a seawater underground / sludge tank, an electric room, an electric panel board and an electric pump motor

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The agriculture department offers subsidy to the farmers for building tanks as per the size of the tanks. Under the scheme, two or more farmers can jointly dig a tank and store water in it during the rainy season when enough water is available and utilize it during the summer season when the water is scarce.

The federal government spends more than $20 billion a year on subsidies for farm businesses. About 39 percent of the nation's 2.1 million farms receive subsidies, with the lion's share of the handouts going to the largest producers of corn, soybeans, wheat, cotton, and rice.

Farm subsidies are intended to raise farmer incomes by remedying low crop prices. Instead, they promote overproduction and therefore lower prices further. ... Farm subsidies are intended to be consumer-friendly and taxpayer-friendly. Instead, they cost Americans billions each year in higher taxes and higher food costs.
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Tuesday, July 28, 2020

DIRECT VISION FLUOROSCOPY

DIRECT VISION FLUOROSCOPY


In radiography, the image is formed by passing through an X-ray patient and falling on a detector or film. And this gives a sstatic image. Fluoroscent screens are used as detector in fluoroscopy. A live x-ray image of body functioning and motion is obtained by fluoroscopy. It is used to get the real-time moving image of the internal structure of the patient.


Fluoroscopy is a dynamic imaging system, in which the moving organ can be viewed with the help of X-rays. During this time, x-rays are constantly in ON condition.

Fluoroscopy system has many applications. like -


  • Photo-spot imaging
  • Spot film acquisition
  • Digital subtraction angiography
  • Endoscopic examination
  • Lithotripsy
  • Cine-radiography
Depending on the technology, the fluoroscopy machine is of the following types -

  • Direct Vision Fluoroscopy
  • Image Intensifier Fluoroscopy (IITV)
  • Flatpanel Detector Fluoroscopy

Direct Vision FluoroscopyIt is also called conventional fluoroscopy. It was discovered in 1896 by Thomas A. Edison. In this, the image is formed by falling of x ray on the fluoroscopic screen, which can be seen directly with the eyes. The Radiologist stands behind this fluoroscent screen and sees this live image.


This fluoroscent screen is made by coating of zinc cadmium sulfide (ZnCdS) on a lead glass. Green light emits when xray falls on zinc cadmium sulfide. Hence it is also called Green screen. The Radiologist looks at this image in the dark room with the help of red goggels. When X-rays fall on the Thick phosphor layer, it converts it into visible light in the same proportion, but the brightness of this image is very low.


This type of fluoroscopy continued to be used until 1950. Image After the advent of intensifier fluoroscopy it was discontionue for the following reason.


The light output of a fluoroscent screen is very low for any x-ray exposure.
The screen's light conversion efficiency is very low and the spatial resolution is very low.
Due to the narrow viewing angle being about 6 °, the radiologist is able to see only a part of the light coming from the screen.


In low light the visual acuity or visual acuity of the eyes is 10 times less. Hence the contrast of the fluoroscopic image is only 1/10 of the contrast of the radiographic image.
  • The image is very faint. So, it can only be seen with the help of red goggles in the dark room. In the .
  • fluoroscopy procedure, the patient and radiologist and staff have higher radiation dose
  • Fluoroscopy procedure room requires complete darkness.
  • Only one person can see the image on a Fluoroscent screen at a time.
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Image Intensifier Fluoroscopy




Image Intensifier Fluoroscopy



Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique in which a live xray image of the patient's internal structure is taken and viewed. Depending on the technology, the fluoroscopy machine is of the following types -

  • Direct Vision Fluoroscopy
  • Image Intensifier Fluoroscopy (IITV)
  • Flatpanel Detector Fluoroscopy


Image Intensifier Fluoroscopy replaced Direct vision fluoroscopy due to the many limitations of direct vision fluoroscopy. Image Intensifier (II) fluoroscopy is a modern system, consisting of an Image Intensifier and closed circuit TV system. Hence it is also called IITV.

Fluoroscopy image should have maximum image detail, which requires more image brightness. Image intensifier has higher image brightness, which also displays more image detail. Image brightness depends on anatomy, mA and kVp. Hence image brightness can be changed in fluoroscopy by controlling mA and kVp.

A Fluoroscopy examination lasts for several minutes, which also increases the radiation dose of the patient. The exposure rate is kept as low as 200 mR / Min to reduce the radiation dose of the patient. Fluoroscopy systems have low current output that ranges from 1 to 5 mA and produces 30 images per second. Whereas the current output in radiographic exposure ranges from 100 to 200 mA which is much higher than the fluoroscopic current output. In Fluoroscopy, few X-ray photons are taken to create a single fluoroscopic image. Therefore, comparing the number of X-ray photons, the fluoroscopic image is inferior to the radiographic image.



A special feature of a fluoroscopy machine is the Deadman switch. Continuous xray beam is achieved by continuously pressing either the hand switch or the foot pedal. Exposure is terminated by releasing the pressure applied on the pedal or switch.


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FLUOROSCOPY PERFORMANCE

FLUOROSCOPY PERFORMANCE

The performance of the image intensifier tube increases with increasing illumination (brightness) of the image. This is due to multiplication of light photon on the output phosphor and image minification. Increase of illumination depends on the brightness gain of the tube. Hence the term brightness gain and conversion factor are used to assess the performance of the image intensifier tube.

Brightness gain

Brightness gain is the ratio of brightness to output phosphor and input phosphor. It depends on two cars.
Flux Gain = Number of Output Light Photon / Number of Input X-ray Photons


Minification Gain


Light intensity increases when the size of the output phosphor image is reduced compared to the input phosphor image. This is called minification gain. This is equal to the square of the ratio of the size of the input and output screens.
Question: If d1 and d2 are 300mm and 30mm and II tube's Flux gain is 50 for an II tube, then Brightness gain will be.
answer :

Flux Gain = 50
Minification gain = (d1/d2)2
= (300130)2
= 100
Brightness Gain = Flux gain X Minification gain
= 50 X 100
= 5000
Brightness gain is not a measurable quantity. Therefore, the conversion factor term is used to determine the performance of an II tube.


Conversion Factor

It is the ratio of the brightness (luminance, CD / m2) of the output phosphor and the input x-ray exposure rate (𝛍Gy / sec). Its value is equal to 1% of brightenss gain. Its typical range is 50–300 (CD / m2) / (𝛍Gy / sec), and its corresponding brightness gain range is 5000–30000. The higher the brightness gain and conversion factor of an II tube, the more efficiency it has.
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FLUOROSCOPY PERFORMANCE - ABC

FLUOROSCOPY PERFORMANCE - ABC

AUTOMATIC BRIGHTNESS CONTROL

This is a function of Fluoroscopy, which controls the overall performance of the fluoroscopic image by automatically adjusting kVp, mA or both. By this, the image brightness is kept fixed on the monitor. It is a feed back circuit that measures the light intensity or video camera signal of the output screen.
AUTOMATIC BRIGHTNESS CONTROL

Image A photomultiplier tube or a photocathode is used to monitor the light output of the intensifier tube. When the corresponding brightness changes, it is sent to the generator for adjustment. The generator controls the exposure rate by changing kVp, mA or both. The brightness of the central area of ​​the output screen is measured for this adjustment.
Brightness can be adjusted with both kVp, mA, which affects both contrast and parient dose. Three methods of adjustment are as follows -

  • Change of kV at constant mA
  • Change of mA at constant kV
  • Change of both kV and mA

When the II tube moves from the thin part of the patient to the thick part, then increasing the kV reduces the patient dose and contrast. In addition, when mA is increased, contrast is obtained better and patient dose is also higher.

AUTOMATIC BRIGHTNESS CONTROL

Generally mA is first adjusted to adjust the input dose rate of the II tube. The kV is adjusted to the input dose rate when mA reaches its maximum limit.
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